Geological Disposal Concepts
Safe Disposal and its Repository for HLW and TRU Waste
The nuclear fuel cycle and types of radioactive waste for disposal by NUMO
NUMO is responsible for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel used in the nuclear power plants, as well as TRU waste containing more than a specified concentration of long-lived radionuclides, which is generated by the operation and dismantling of reprocessing plants and MOX fuel fabrication plants.
Waste disposal method
Although radioactivity decays spontaneously with time, HLW and TRU remain radioactive for very long time periods and therefore it is necessary to isolate the waste from the human environment for this time. Different methods for disposing of the waste have been investigated by international institutions and countries worldwide, and the international consensus is that geological disposal in a stable host rock deep underground is the most safe and reliable method.
In Japan, it has been decided that the waste will be disposed of in stable host rock formation more than 300 meters underground. A multi-barrier system consisting of engineered and natural (geological) barriers will isolate and contain the radioactive waste over the long timescales.
Visual impression of a repository
The underground facilities will comprise tunnels for transporting and emplacing the waste packages and will be constructed in a stable host rock formation more than 300 meters underground.
On the surface, the facilities required for supporting underground excavation and operation and closure of the repository will be constructed.
Construction of the disposal tunnels, emplacement of the waste packages and backfilling of the disposal tunnels will be carried out underground. The underground facilities for a HLW repository are extensive and the various operations will be carried out in parallel in separate areas (disposal panels).
In the surface facilities, the vitrified HLW will be encapsulated in overpacks and the TRU waste will be packaged; the necessary inspections of the packages will also be conducted. These tasks will be carried out via remote operation in an area where radiation shielding is in place.
The facilities will also be designed against events such as earthquakes or fires and accidents where waste packages may fall or be overturned.
Example of repository layout
Example of co-located geological disposal facilities for HLW and TRU waste.
Scale of facilities
- Underground facilities:
- HLW disposal area:around 3km by 2km
TRU waste disposal area:around 0.5km by 0.3km
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Handling of Personal Information
The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) (hereafter “NUMO”) recognizes the importance of protecting personal information, has established a policy on the protection of personal information, and endeavors to appropriately protect personal information.
- 1 Collection of personal information
- The personal information you provide is used to respond to your inquiries and provide you with relevant information such as public meetings. It is not used for any other purpose.
- 2 Management of Personal Information
- The personal information you provide is handled appropriately by SPIRAL®, a Cloud Solutions service of Piped Bits Co., Ltd. For further information about information SPIRAL® asset management, visit its website
(https://www.pi-pe.co.jp/security/customer_ap.html) (Japanese only).
In addition, in the case of transferring the personal data of residents of the EEA (European Economic Area) from the EEA to another region including Japan, NUMO properly protects the collected information in accordance with the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter “GDPR”).
- 3 Provision of Personal Information to Third Parties
- NUMO does not disclose or provide your personal information to third parties without your consent. However, personal information may be provided in the case of the need to protect human life, body, or individual property and obtaining your consent is not feasible.
- 4 Outsourcing of Personal Information Handling
- In the event of outsourcing some or all of the provided personal information to the extent necessary to achieve the purpose of use, we select contractors that sufficiently fulfill the required level of personal information protection and supervise and manage the contractors.
- 5 Retention Period of Personal Information
- We retain personal information during the period necessary for the purpose of use.
- 6 Disclosure of Personal Information
- Regarding your personal information, you may request to be notified of the purpose of use, the disclosure, correction, additional and deletion of your personal information, and the suspension of its use or provision to third parties (hereafter collectively referred to as "disclosure"). Please contact us through our contact form if you wish to request disclosure of your personal information. We may confirm your identity before such disclosure.
- 7 Rights Related to Personal Information Handling
- Regarding the personal information you provide, you have the following rights in addition to the right of disclosure.
- (a) Right to request restrictions on the use of your data
- (b) Right to data portability
- (c) Right to raise an objection
- (d) Right to withdraw your agreement
- (e) Right to raise an objection statement to the GDPR authority
- 8 Arbitrary Nature of Personal Information Provision and Case of Not Providing Personal Information
- We collect your personal information to respond to your inquiries only after obtaining your consent. Please note that if your consent is not obtained, we will not be able to respond to your inquiries.
- 9 Automated Individual Decision-making about Personal Information
- We do not make any automated individual decisions that could significantly affect you, including profiling, regarding the personal information you submit.
- 10 Cookies Policy of NUMO’s Website
Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO)
◆Further information and contact details
- ・NUMO website
- ・Contact us by phone or letter at the following if you do not have email.
Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO)
Public Relations Department
Mita NN Bldg. 2F, 4-1-23 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 Japan
+81-3-6371-4003 (10 am to 5 pm, Monday to Friday)
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